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Evolution within a given virulence phenotype (pathotype) is driven by changes in aggressiveness: a case study of French wheat leaf rust populationsuse asterix (*) to get italics
Cécilia FONTYN, Kevin JG MEYER, Anne-Lise BOIXEL, Ghislain DELESTRE, Emma PIAGET, Corentin PICARD, Frédéric SUFFERT, Thierry C MARCEL, Henriette GOYEAUPlease use the format "First name initials family name" as in "Marie S. Curie, Niels H. D. Bohr, Albert Einstein, John R. R. Tolkien, Donna T. Strickland"
<p style="text-align: justify;">Plant pathogens are constantly evolving and adapting to their environment, including their host. Virulence alleles emerge, and then increase, and sometimes decrease in frequency within pathogen populations in response to the fluctuating selection pressures imposed by the deployment of resistance genes. In some cases, these strong selection pressures cannot fully explain the evolution observed in pathogen populations. A previous study on the French population of <em>Puccinia triticina</em>, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust, showed that two major pathotypes — groups of isolates with a particular combination of virulences — predominated but then declined over the 2005-2016 period. The relative dynamics and the domination of these two pathotypes — 166 317 0 and 106 314 0 —, relative to the other pathotypes present in the population at a low frequency although compatible, i.e. virulent on several varieties deployed, could not be explained solely by the frequency of <em>Lr </em>genes in the landscape. Within these two pathotypes, we identified two main genotypes that emerged in succession. We assessed three components of aggressiveness — infection efficiency, latency period and sporulation capacity — for 44 isolates representative of the four <em>P. triticina</em> pathotype-genotype combinations. We showed, for both pathotypes, that the more recent genotypes were more aggressive than the older ones. Our findings were highly consistent for the various components of aggressiveness for pathotype 166 317 0 grown on Michigan Amber — a ‘naive’ cultivar never grown in the landscape — or on Apache — a ‘neutral’ cultivar, which does not affect the pathotype frequency in the landscape and therefore was postulated to have no or minor selection effect on the population composition. For pathotype 106 314 0, the most recent genotype had a shorter latency period on several of the cultivars most frequently grown in the landscape, but not on ‘neutral’ and ‘naive’ cultivars. We conclude that the quantitative components of aggressiveness can be significant drivers of evolution in pathogen populations. A gain in aggressiveness stopped the decline in frequency of a pathotype, and subsequently allowed an increase in frequency of this pathotype in the pathogen population, providing evidence that adaptation to a changing varietal landscape not only affects virulence but can also lead to changes in aggressiveness.&nbsp;</p> should fill this box only if you chose 'All or part of the results presented in this preprint are based on data'. URL must start with http:// or https:// should fill this box only if you chose 'Scripts were used to obtain or analyze the results'. URL must start with http:// or https://
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Aggressiveness, quantitative phenotyping, genotype evolution, host adaptation, Puccinia triticina
NonePlease indicate the methods that may require specialised expertise during the peer review process (use a comma to separate various required expertises).
Coevolution, Epidemiology, Evolution of hosts, infectious agents, or vectors, Interactions between hosts and infectious agents/vectors, Pathogenic/Symbiotic Fungi, Phytopathology, Plant diseases, Population dynamics of hosts, infectious agents, or vectors, Resistance/Virulence/Tolerance
Jacqui SHYKOFF <>, Fabien HALKETT <>, Thierry DE MEEÛS <>, Pierre GLADIEUX <>, Tatiana GIRAUD <>, Fanny HARTMANN <>, Tim JAMES <>, Karl-Heinz KOGEL <>, James KM BROWN <>, Chris K SORENSEN <> No need for them to be recommenders of PCIInfections. Please do not suggest reviewers for whom there might be a conflict of interest. Reviewers are not allowed to review preprints written by close colleagues (with whom they have published in the last four years, with whom they have received joint funding in the last four years, or with whom they are currently writing a manuscript, or submitting a grant proposal), or by family members, friends, or anyone for whom bias might affect the nature of the review - see the code of conduct
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2022-09-29 20:01:57
Pierre Gladieux
Emerson Del Ponte , Jacqui Shykoff, Leïla Bagny Beilhe , Alexey Mikaberidze